Free download Polymer Chemistry By Alka Gupta in .pdf published by Pragati Publication in 2010.
Polymers science and engineering deal with the chemistry, molecular struture, physical properties, the applications and processing in the useful forms and the biological significance of materials. It is the chemistry of large molecules-macromolecules each containing from thousands to millions of atoms. The atoms are typically linked in a sequence of repeating structural units, derived from certain molecules of small units, i.e., monomers.
The polymer is thus a long chain, in some polymer may coil, branch, cross-linked to other chains or take part in other orders or structural complexity. The chemical and physical interactions among the atoms of polymer are governed by the same laws that describe systems of small molecules, but extreme molecular size introduces a new realm of properties. The diversity of macromolecular structure represented by a given chemical composition increases with the number of monomeric units present and statistical considerations must enter the description of even the simplest polymer chain. The extreme length of macromolecular chain inhibits their crystallization, hence diverse stable solid states occur which may be rubbery, glassy or semicrystalline. New combinations of properties emerge, such as rubbery elasticity and strength, combined with flexibility and optical clarity. Fabrication methods are found with polymers which facilitate their shaping into desired forms. Polymers made by man, and their fabrication into finished products have become the basis of a major industry world wide. Life itself is a basis of large molecules. The remarkable adaptations of collagen and cellulose to structural functions, the specificity and efficiency of enzymes as catalysts, the binding and release of oxygen by hemoglobin and myoglobin, and the encoding of specific genetic information by the nucleic acids, all have their origins in the polymeric nature of the molecules involved.
Polymer study and research is thus interdisciplinary, with major contributions from chemistry, physics, several branches of engineering, biomedical science and molecular biology.
Polymers are essential in fulfilling a broad range of national needs, present and prospective, in such categories as energy, transportation, construction, agriculture and food processing, medicine and national defense. The history of polymer science and engineering is replete with unforeseen discoveries of major consequence, and the future of this field is bright one promising. For example, the recent break throughs in understanding the structure and invivo synthesis of biopolymers still have to make their major impact on synthetic polymers, and the theory and application of composite materials based on polymers are still in their infancy.
Enormous studies have been made in the field of biopolymers, since the discovery of the DNA double helical structure in 1953. This was followed by various advances: the determination of the detailed sequence structure of nucleic acids and proteins, the recognition of nucleic acids as the carriers of heredity and the solid-state synthesis of sizable protein molecules. Further progress has continued in many related areas, including such vital aspects as the three-dimensional structure of enzymes, its connection to binding of specific molecules, and thus its catalytic function.
The production of polymers on a volume basis now exceeds that of steel, and its growth rate (8.5% per year) is four times that of steel and nonferrous metals. Polymer industries add $ 90 billion per year of value added by manufacture and employ 3.4 million people. Polymers also have a high technology aspect which will be increasingly important in the future and may have a critical impact on fulfilling national needs.
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