Ionic Equilibrium Contents:

  • Degree of ionization
  • Ostwald dilution law and its limitations
  • pH scale
    • Definition of pH and importance of pH scale,
    • Relation between pH and concentration of H+ in solution,
    • pH range of acidic, basic solution,
    • Introduction about pOH, relation between pH and pOH, ionic product of water (Kw),
  • Hydrolysis of salts (from weak acid [HA] and strong base [BOH]) including derivation of

  • Hydrolysis of salts (from weak base [BOH] and strong acid [HA]) including derivation of

  • Hydrolysis of salts (from weak acid [HA] and weak base [BOH]) including derivation of

  • Buffer solution
    • Properties of buffer solutions,
    • Buffer capacity and buffer limit of buffer solution,
    • pH of buffer formed from weak acid and its salt including derivation of Henderson-Hasselbach equation,
    • Action of buffer solutions in adjustment of pH during addition of acid or Base,
    • Buffer standards,
    • Importance of buffer solutions

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