- INTRODUCTION OF FORENSIC SCIENCE
- Forensic science is the application of scientific knowledge to aid in the administration of justice.
- Forensics is the Latin term, it means the court of law, in other words legal proceedings or it is used in the court of law in a shape of evidences, the evidence is achieved from scientific or forensic examination.
- Forensic science embraces all branches of science and applied to the purpose of law.
- Forensic science is a scientific discipline which is direct to the recognition, identification, individualization and evaluation of physical evidence by application of the principles of natural science for the administration of justice.
- Forensic science is a multidisciplinary subject used for examining crime scenes and gathering evidence to be used in prosecution of offenders in a court of law.
- The main areas used in forensic science are biology, chemistry, and medicine, although the science also includes the use of physics, computer science, serology, and psychology. Forensic scientists examine objects, substances (including blood or drug samples), chemicals (paints, explosives, toxins), tissue traces (hair, skin), or impressions (fingerprints or tidemarks) left at the crime scene. The majority of forensic scientists specialize in one area of science.
- HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF FORENSIC SCIENCE
- History dates back to the 17th century with Archimedes, who detected fraudulence of a fake golden crown through the principle of density and buoyancy. During the 19th and 20th century it became more popular with a scientific approach. Among the lot many people who has really initiated the practical aspect of scientific or forensic application was Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. Through this fictitious characters Sherlock Holmes, he popularized the scientific method of investigation. Later on there where many scientist who got expertise in various forensic science they are as follows:
- Mathews Orifila (1757-1853):-
- He is the father of toxicology.
- He did the study of effects of poison on animals and also the detection of them.
- This is the initiative for the establishment of Forensic Toxicology.
- Alphonse Bertillon (1813-1914):-
- He devised the scientific system of personal identification.
- He started to develop scientific anthropometry which is a systematic procedure of taking a series of body measurements as a means of differentiating one individual from another.
- This has been later replaced the Finger prints.
- He considered as the father of criminal investigation through criminal identification.
- Francis Galton (1822-1911):-
- He developed method of classification of Finger prints.
- He is responsible for the present system of identification by Finger prints.
- Leone Lattose (1887-1954):-
- Karl landstainer discovered the blood groups but Dr. Leone Lattose devised a relatively simple procedure for determine the blood group of a drip blood stain even today it is in use.
- Cavin Goddar (1891-1954):-
- He devised the technique of comparison of a fire bullet with that of a test one.
- Also it is possible to determination if the weapon that has been used for firing of bullet.
- Albert Osborn (1858-1915):-
- He developed basic principle of document examination as scientific evidence.
- Hans Gross (1847-1915):-
- He was first to utilize the various techniques in the field of scientific criminal investigation.
- Edmond Locard (1847-1915):-
- He was first to deliver the concept of exchange of particles in crime scene
- SERVICES PROVIDED BY FSL
There are a no. of services provided by various units of FSL. They are:
- Physics Division:
By using modern analytical instruments they examine glass, soil, paints, also metals and trace evidence analysis are done in this division.
- Chemistry Division:
In this unit analysis of alcohol and drugs such as narcotics and petroleum products are being done.
- Biology Division:
There is an examination of blood stains and other body fluids such as urine, saliva, sweat.
Apart from this there is analysis from hair, fiber, and botanical substance being taken in division of Serology, DNA and Genetics.
- Ballistics Division:
Examination of firearms, discharged bullets, cartridge cases are being done in this division.
Range of firearm that is from where bullet is fired can be estimated in this division.
Using comparison microscope bullets can be compared with original bullets.
- Document Examination Division:
In this division the examination of handwriting, typewriting for their authenticity and also analysis of ink and paper is done.
- Photography Division:
This division is totally dedicated to record the physical evidence with highly technical photographic instruments.
- Toxicology Division:
In this unit examination and detection of poisons from body fluids, organs are done.
All qualitative and quantitative unit are done in this division.
- Fingerprints Division:
In this division the examination and comparison of finger print is done.
- Instruments Division:
All the high technical instruments are available in this division to analyse the physical evidence specially trace evidences.
- Narcotics Division:
In this the analysis of narcotic drug is done.
Narco Analysis / Psychology Division:
In this division the examination of criminal is done by administration of specific drug to get a psychological profile is done by doing so there is a chance of extracting the truth and fact from the criminal is possible.
- DNA Division:
In this division the analysis of body fluids for the administration of identify of individual including paternity, maternity, child swapping etc is possible.
- Anthropology Division:
In this division examination of skeleton remains or bones is carried for the determination of sex, race, age and other related queries.
- Cyber Forensics / Computer Forensics:
In this division the detection of cyber related crime is carried out such as getting unauthorized access into other system (Hackers) and Fraudulence through internet.
OTHER FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICES:
Even through the service rented by the FSL by enlarge, very large and multifarious. There are other services which are been provided with specialized skills such as Forensic Pathology or Forensic Medicine which is more Indian prospective, Forensic anthropology, Forensic odontology, Forensic entomology, Forensic psychiatry, Forensic engineering etc.
These services are made available outside the FSL.
- Forensic Medicine (Medical Expert):-
They apply the medical knowledge for solving the criminal investigation problems.
These experts are available to opine about the death due to accident, suicide, homicide or natural.
They can also opine above the time of death with the change occur after death.
This is possible by examination of body for the decomposition changes.
They can also determine the age of the individual or age of the death body by analyzing the formation of bones.
- Forensic Anthropology:-
It mainly concerned with identification and examination of human skeleton remains.
They can opine about age, sex, race by bones.
- Forensic Entomology:-
This is a study of insects and their relation to criminal investigation.
This is very useful for the estimation of time of death by studying the developments of insects in death body.
- Forensic Psychiatry:-
This is specialty in which the relationship with human behavior and legal proceedings
Behavior pattern of person is analyzed.
- Forensic Odontology: –
These specialists are able to opine about the identity of individual with the examination of teeth.
Even in some crime scene if byte marks are available, then there is a possibility of identification of criminal.
- IMPORTANT OF FORENSIC SCIENCE
The main use of forensic science is for purposes of law enforcement to investigate crimes such as murder, theft, or fraud. Forensic scientists are also involved in investigating accidents such as train or plane crashes to establish if they were accidental or a result of foul play. The techniques developed by forensic science are also used by the army to analyze the possibility of the presence of chemical weapons, high explosives or to test for propellant stabilizers. Gasoline products often evaporate rapidly and their presence cannot be confirmed, but residues of chemicals, such as propellant stabilizers, are present for much longer indicating that an engine or missile was used.
There is an urgent need for the application of forensic science in the criminal justice delivery system.
There are a large number of trials, criminal proceedings in heinous (serious) crimes, which end in acquittals.
The main reason for such acquittals is the lack of proper evidences.
In some cases the witnesses turn hostile due to varied reasons. So, a witness may be wrong and unreliable but scientific evidence will not be go wrong.
It means that the presence of physical evidence at crime scene will speak truth and fact.
In the number of cases criminals go set free, in many cases, there is a chance of innocence being falsely implicated (convict) in some cases.
The principle of criminal justice system is to protect the innocence from wrong convictions while making sure the culprits are punished for the crime they have committed So, there is a necessity of expert evidences for the accomplishment of proper delivery of justice. This will be achieved through expert of forensic science.
Existence of crime was established from the time of Adam, so to say crime started with mankind, unlike in the past the criminals in contemporary society or world used a highly technical methods to execute crime.
So, to detect such criminals it is necessary to have more intellectuals, who have expertise in science and technology.
Such skill full and protection knowledge in forensic science is imparted through education, training and experience.
This will result in emergence of more qualify and highly technical expert of forensic science.
They are more need to tackle the problem of pending cases by the way of speedy delivery of justice.
In other words, the forensic experts helped in solving the problem of civil and criminal cases which are pending for delivery of justice.
- PRINCIPLE OF FORENSIC SCIENCE
The laws and principles of all science faculties form the basis of forensic science.
Forensic science has developed its own principle in the simplest sense, law of individuality, principle of probability, principle of exchange, principle of comparison, law of progressive change.
- Principle of Individuality:-
“This law says that every object either natural or manmade has an individuality which is not duplicated in any other object. That means every object is unique and individualistic.”
EX: The manmade currency notes (excluding the no.), coins, typewrites etc. are certainly unique, though they have look same or alike.
Even the God’s creation such as seeds, fruits, plants also unique.
This form the basis for forensic investigation with the foot and finger prints being unique of course with unique DNA pattern
Thus investigation made easier.
- Principle of Exchange:-
According to principle, “Whenever any two objects come into contact with each other, there is always an exchange of minute particles or trace evidences in between them.”
According to this principle whenever a criminal or his weapon of crime come into contact with the victim or his surroundings objects , trace evidence are left at that slight.
In the same way the criminal or his weapons picked up trace from the same contact.
EX: In a hit and run case of road traffic accident there is a presence of blood stains in the vehicle that is hit and ran away.
In the same way the tyre marks, footwear marks, paints of vehicles will be present in the victim’s surroundings.
Another classical example is the blood stain present in the victim of rape, whereas presence of hair seen in the body of accused.
- Law of Progressive Changes:-
According to this law, “Everything changes with the passage of time. In other words, there is nothing permanent and invariable.”
Example: The criminals undergo progressive change as time passes on.
If the criminal is not apprehended in time, he becomes unrecognizable except the finger prints, blood groups, DNA profile.
There is also a rapid change occurring at the crime scene.
After sometime the crime scene becomes totally unrecognizable and also there is a chance of physical evidence being lost or tempered or destroyed.
- Principle of Comparison:-
According to this principle, it is stated that, “only the likes can be compared.”
“There is a possibility of comparison only when there are things which are similar.”
Example: A bullet from the crime scene can be compared with the firing weapon (rifle) but not with the shot gun.
When a writing on the wall is to be examined, it has to be compared with the similar writing on a wall not on paper.
- Principle of Analysis:-
This principle stated as, “The analysis can be no better than the sample analysis.”
“The analysis should be done with the proper sampling (correct sampling and correct packing) is necessary for the right analysis by the experts.”
Example: in the case of seminal stain analysis, the investigation officer collecting the blood stain cloths will not be of any use.
- Principle of Probability:-
This principle is based on the fact that all identification whether definite or indefinite or may consciously or unconsciously on the basis of probability.
A probability is a mathematical concept It determines the chances of occurrence of particular event in a particular way out of a number of ways in which the event can take place or failed to take place.
Example: In the case of identifying the dead body of a woman with nose piercing and with the tattoo marked in the right arm.
The probability of identification = The probability of spectacles x Probability of nose piercing x Probability of tattoo
= 1/5000 x 1/20,000 x 1/1000
- Facts do not lie:
Eye witness in a particular crime may turn hostile but physical evidences will not change.
Oral testimony of a witness is modified by external influence (threats, emotional blackmail, influence of money power, muscle power) but the material evidence will be unchanged.